accounting blog

each 300 words minimum.
1. On January 20, 2017, Tamira Nelson, the accountant for Picton Enterprises, is feeling pressure to complete the annual financial statements. The company president has said he needs up-to-date financial statements to share with the bank on January 21 at a dinner meeting that has been called to discuss Picton’s obtaining loan financing for a special building project. Tamira knows that she will not be able to gather all the needed information in the next 24 hours to prepare the entire set of adjusting entries. Those entries must be posted before the financial statements accurately portray the company’s performance and financial position for the fiscal period ended December 31, 2016. Tamira ultimately decides to estimate several expense accruals at the last minute. When deciding on estimates for the expenses, she uses low estimates because she does not want to make the financial statements look worse than they are. Tamira finishes the financial statements before the deadline and gives them to the president without mentioning that several account balances are estimates that she provided.

 

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Required

Identify several courses of action that Tamira could have taken instead of the one she took.
If you were in Tamira’s situation, what would you have done? Briefly justify your response.

2. Amy Martin is a student who plans to attend approximately four professional events a year at her college. Each event necessitates a financial outlay of $100 to $200 for a new suit and accessories. After incurring a major hit to her savings for the first event, Amy developed a different approach. She buys the suit on credit the week before the event, wears it to the event, and returns it the next week to the store for a full refund on her charge card.

 

 

Required

Comment on the ethics exhibited by Amy and possible consequences of her actions.
How does the merchandising company account for the suits that Amy returns?
3. Golf Challenge Corp. is a retail sports store carrying golf apparel and equipment. The store is at the end of its second year of operation and is struggling. A major problem is that its cost of inventory has continually increased in the past two years. In the first year of operations, the store assigned inventory costs using LIFO. A loan agreement the store has with its bank, its prime source of financing, requires the store to maintain a certain profit margin and current ratio. The store’s owner is currently looking over Golf Challenge’s preliminary financial statements for its second year. The numbers are not favorable. The only way the store can meet the required financial ratios agreed on with the bank is to change from LIFO to FIFO. The store originally decided on LIFO because of its tax advantages. The owner recalculates ending inventory using FIFO and submits those numbers and statements to the loan officer at the bank for the required bank review. The owner thankfully reflects on the available latitude in choosing the inventory costing method.

 

Required

How does Golf Challenge’s use of FIFO improve its net profit margin and current ratio?
Is the action by Golf Challenge’s owner ethical? Explain.
4. Harriet Knox, Ralph Patton, and Marcia Diamond work for a family physician, Dr. Gwen Conrad, who is in private practice. Dr. Conrad is knowledgeable about office management practices and has segregated the cash receipt duties as follows. Knox opens the mail and prepares a triplicate list of money received. She sends one copy of the list to Patton, the cashier, who deposits the receipts daily in the bank. Diamond, the rec­ordkeeper, receives a copy of the list and posts payments to patients’ accounts. About once a month the office clerks have an expensive lunch they pay for as follows. First, Patton endorses a patient’s check in Dr. Conrad’s name and cashes it at the bank. Knox then destroys the remittance advice accompanying the check. Finally, Diamond posts payment to the customer’s account as a miscellaneous credit. The three justify their actions by their relatively low pay and knowledge that Dr. Conrad will likely never miss the money.

 

Required

Who is the best person in Dr. Conrad’s office to reconcile the bank statement?
Would a bank reconciliation uncover this office fraud?
What are some procedures to detect this type of fraud?
Suggest additional internal controls that Dr. Conrad could implement.
5. Anton Blair is the manager of a medium-size company. A few years ago, Blair persuaded the owner to base a part of his compensation on the net income the company earns each year. Each December he estimates year-end financial figures in anticipation of the bonus he will receive. If the bonus is not as high as he would like, he offers several recommendations to the accountant for year-end adjustments. One of his favorite recommendations is for the controller to reduce the estimate of doubtful accounts.

 

Required

What effect does lowering the estimate for doubtful accounts have on the income statement and balance sheet?
Do you believe Blair’s recommendation to adjust the allowance for doubtful accounts is within his rights as manager, or do you believe this action is an ethics violation?
Justify your response.What type of internal control(s) might be useful for this company in overseeing the manager’s recommendations for accounting changes?
6.Flo Choi owns a small business and manages its accounting. Her company just finished a year in which a large amount of borrowed funds was invested in a new building addition as well as in equipment and fixture additions. Choi’s banker requires her to submit semiannual financial statements so he can monitor the financial health of her business. He has warned her that if profit margins erode, he might raise the interest rate on the borrowed funds to reflect the increased loan risk from the bank’s point of view. Choi knows profit margin is likely to decline this year. As she prepares year-end adjusting entries, she decides to apply the following depreciation rule: All asset additions are considered to be in use on the first day of the following month. (The previous rule assumed assets are in use on the first day of the month nearest to the purchase date.)

 

Required

Identify decisions that managers like Choi must make in applying depreciation methods.
Is Choi’s rule an ethical violation, or is it a legitimate decision in computing depreciation?
How will Choi’s new depreciation rule affect the profit margin of her business?
7. Harriet Moore is an accountant for New World Pharmaceuticals. Her duties include tracking research and development spending in the new product development division. Over the course of the past six months, Harriet has noticed that a great deal of funds have been spent on a particular project for a new drug. She hears “through the grapevine” that the company is about to patent the drug and expects it to be a major advance in antibiotics. Harriet believes that this new drug will greatly improve company performance and will cause the company’s stock to increase in value. Harriet decides to purchase shares of New World in order to benefit from this expected increase.

Required

What are Harriet’s ethical responsibilities, if any, with respect to the information she has learned through her duties as an accountant for New World Pharmaceuticals?
What are the implications of her planned purchase of New World shares?

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