Please write an argumentative essay following the Toulmin model on a current First Amendment issue. Remember to formulate an argument for an academic (your classmates) audience, so your writing style and tone should be formal. Also, remember that offensive language will turn off your audience.
Your papers should follow the guidelines below:
I. Introduction – Give background or perhaps an illustrative example to show the significance of the subject or the nature of the controversy. Consider stating the conclusion of your argument here as the thesis of your essay. Your thesis should be the last sentence of your introduction
II. Claim: In this section, you explain your overall thesis on the subject. In other words, you make your main argument.
III. Data (Grounds): You should use evidence to support the claim. In other words, provide the reader with facts that prove your argument is strong.
IIII. Warrant (Bridge): In this section, you explain why or how your data supports the claim. As a result, the underlying assumption that you build your argument on is grounded in reason.
V. Backing (Foundation): Here, you provide any additional logic or reasoning that may be necessary to support the warrant.
VI. Counterclaim: You should anticipate a counterclaim that negates the main points in your argument. Don’t avoid arguments that oppose your own. Instead, become familiar with the opposing perspective. If you respond to counterclaims, you appear unbiased (and, therefore, you earn the respect of your readers). You may even want to include several counterclaims to show that you have thoroughly researched the topic.
VII. Rebuttal: In this section, you incorporate your own evidence that disagrees with the counterclaim. It is essential to include a thorough warrant or bridge to strengthen your essay’s argument. If you present data to your audience without explaining how it supports your thesis, your readers may not make a connection between the two, or they may draw different conclusions.
VIII. Conclusion – After all your evidence has been presented and/or your premises defended, pull your whole argument together in the last paragraph by showing how the evidence you have presented provides sufficient grounds for accepting your conclusion. You may also add here some conventional device to finish your essay, such as a prediction, a new example, a reference to the example with which you began (now seen in a new light) etc.
Your papers must be double-spaced, 1” margins all around, written using Times New Roman (or equivalent) typeface, and using 12 point font. Papers should a minimum of 5 pages long and incorporate at least four different sources of scholarly information (e.g., governmental publications, academic journals/books, etc.) BESIDES the course texts. (NOTE: Newspapers and magazines may be used, but they are NOT considered scholarly/academic resources). You should use MLA (Modern Language Association) format for your references and citations. An online guide can be found at https://www.pcc.edu/library/research/citation-style-guidelines-and-samples/. All referencing information should be available here. However, if you have a question that this page cannot answer, please ask me for clarification.
This is a formal paper—use proper grammar, no contractions, no slang, avoid “passive voice,” etc. For more information on the usage of “active/passive voice,” please see https://www.grammarly.com/blog/active-vs-passive-voice/.
Your writing should be succinct, without errors, and sole-authored. Your writing should flow smoothly from sentence to sentence and from paragraph to paragraph—proofread carefully to assure that this happens. If it “sounds” wrong, it probably is. If necessary, please meet with me or contact me for assistance.
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