Define the following terms using a few words or phrases: guard cells Archaea ecotype mitochondria dictyosomes plasmodesmata thylakoids xylem phloem ecotype Kingdom Planta Dendrology Stromatolite Cyanobacteria aerobic respiration ATP Gymnosperm Angiosperm Linnaeus Kingdom Animalia Kingdom Protoctista Kingdom Fungi Kindgom Monera Extremeophile Thermophile Acidophile Halophile 16S rRNA Association Coefficient Domain Monocot Dicot Anthophyta Cultivar plasma membrane ribosome peptide bond mRNA tRNA rRNA transcription translation smooth endoplasmic reticulum dictyosome cellulose osmosis turgor pressure ATP synthase Apoplast Symplast middle lamella plastid stroma glyoxysome microbodies peroxisome photorespiration tonoplast cotyledon pioneer species macronutrient micronutrient nitrogenase leghemoglobin Short answer questions: Answer each question using a sentence or two What is the number of known species on earth? How does it compare with the actual number of species thought to exist on earth What do stromatolites have to do with the earth’s current atmosphere How are photosynthesis and aerobic respiration related What is the difference between taxonomy and systematics What are each of these people famous for? Carolus Linnaeus, RH Whittaker, Carl Woese Differentiate organisms in the Kingdom Planta from organisms in the Kingdom Animalia What is the difference between Kingdoms and Domains How can you tell monocots from dicots? Water enters plant cells by osmosis. What eventually stops water from entering the plant cell? Why are plants green How do roots sense gravity What is the difference between primary growth and secondary growth How is membrane surface area related to energy generation in mitochondria? How do mRNA, tRNA and rRNA relate to each other? How do peptide bonds relate to protein molecules? Why do plant cell membranes possess cholesterol? How was life classified before Carl Woese and how did he change biological classification? What are the major chemical components of a plant cell wall? Why is oxygen important in cellular respiration? Do you think a plant could control movement of substance into it best if the substance followed an apoplastic pathway or symplastic pathway? How are the light reactions related to the dark reactions in photosynthesis? What happens inside thylakoids in a chloroplast? What is the function of peroxisomes in a plant cell? What is the difference between cellular respiration and photorespiration? Why do plant cells have usually a very large central vacuole? Differentiate the terms “nitrogen fixation” and “biological nitrogen fixation”. A gymnosperm seed just shed from a tree has a good chance of forming a new tree. True or False and why? Briefly describe two characteristics of plant pioneer species that allow them to colonize new environments. What’s the difference between macronutrients and micronutrients in plant nutrition? Differentiate broad sense and narrow sense definitions of the term “symbiosis”. What is the oxygen paradox in the process of biological nitrogen fixation? How is the oxygen paradox addressed in the actinorhizal symbiosis? How is the association coefficient related to 16S rRNA? In which part(s) of the cell do (a) transcription and (b) translation occur? Explain how membrane surface area is related to energy generation in mitochondria? How are the light reactions related to the dark reactions in photosynthesis? Define the terms macronutrients and micronutrients in plant nutrition and provide an example of each.
Can be as many pages as needed but no headers and no references and use Canadian material
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